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The importance of learning to learn and how it can change our lives

One of the most important competencies and one that can most radically lead to change in our lives is learning to learn. This competency, or skill, which can be developed over time, has a very significant impact on aspects such as personal wellbeing, our productivity and effectiveness. Therefore, we can say that learning to learn will improve our quality of life.

In this article we’ll explain what is learning to learn and how you too can develop this skill.

What is “Learning to learn”?

On the one hand, it means that someone is aware of the complexity of learning, is able to analyse what they learn, in what way they do it and what the processes are in which they manage to go on learning. On the other hand, learning to learn implies that this knowledge helps them to adjust their learning processes, in the following three phases: planning (goals); monitoring (reflecting throughout the process to know whether they are on the right path); and evaluating (reflecting again, and evaluating the final outcome).

In turn, learning to learn is directly related to active learning, through which the student is able to adapt their learning capacity over time and more or less by teaching themselves, with practically no dependence on third parties, and without any theory. It could be said that active learning is a learning method that focuses on the participant and encourages their continuous participation, through discussions, collaboration, involvement, practice etc. 

In E. Martín and A. Moreno’s book, “Competency for learning to learn”, they state that learning to learn is a metacognitive activity. It’s not enough that students or pupils just learn well. Learning to learn also implies reflecting on what has been learned. Sometimes, to encourage reflection, at the end of a topic some teachers or books add questions such as: What have you learned? Did you enjoy it? These are examples of questions that a student should ask themselves when finishing a topic, chapter, or learning step, so they improve their learning and manage to learn to learn.

As for schools, teachers should always organise their lessons with a reflective focus, without forgetting the emotional side of learning to learn. For a person to want to carry on learning, they must feel able to do so. This means having taken part in positive learning activities, in other words, having succeeded in them. Otherwise, when a student or person fails a task, as well as not learning what was taught to them, or that they wanted to learn, they also learn that they don’t know how to learn. 

Outside of school, or at least, outside of compulsory education, when it’s the student who’s interested in learning about a topic, learning to learn, or following an active learning methodology, can be the decisive factor in how and how much a student learns.

How to learn to learn in 6 simple steps

learn to learn

  1. Get planning: Before anything else, you should analyse how you are going to tackle the task of learning. What goals do you want to achieve? How do you intend to meet those goals? In this way, you’ll avoid feeling lost in the learning process.
  2. Choose subjects that motivate you: If you don’t like what you are going to learn or study, you’ll lose motivation and it’s highly likely that you won’t complete the learning, since it becomes an ordeal.
  3. Use different learning techniques: These make processing the information faster and easier for you. Here are two effective learning techniques: Active observation: this technique can be used both in watching how others carry out the same task, or through making mind maps. Memorisation: Since every person is so different, you should create your own mnemonic rules, in other words, what works best for you. For example, you could draw a story that you have to remember.
  4. Collaborate: If you exchange information with other people, you’ll spot your own mistakes as well as those of others, in what you’re going to learn. At the same time, you’ll be building on your social skills.
  5. Significant learning: This step refers to putting what you’re learning into practice. It means applying what you’ve learned in your day-to-day activities.
  6. Evaluate what you’ve learned: Learning to learn involves being able to assess the successes and failures of a learning process. In this way, we’re able to see where we’re not making progress (if this is the case) and therefore, know if it’s necessary to change the decision-making process or learning techniques… to make this process more effective.


The future looks more promising for those people who know how to continuously broaden their learning. At Epitech, we train our students following the active learning methodology. Learning to learn is one of the fundamental pillars of our education methodology.

We invite you to visit our website and discover our courses and training programmes. If you want to ask any questions or get information about a course or programme, contact us without any commitment. We’ll be delighted to help you!

Blockchain programming: Its main programming languages

Are you curious about the sudden appearance and huge popularity of Blockchain? Let’s talk about blockchain programming.

What are we talking about? Basically, Blockchain is a chain of blocks, as its name would suggest. But, in a digital context, these blocks are information which are connected through cryptography. Each block has a cryptographic function that relates it to the previous one, so they are organised in a way that makes it very complicated to change the data, therefore guaranteeing transparency and security.

If you are interested in becoming a Blockchain programmer, as one of the professions of the future and the present in the technological environment, first you will need to learn some of the programming languages that are most frequently used. In this post we’ll talk about them. 

Blockchain languages

  • C++. This language is very popular in the technological world, including in Blockchain technology. This is because of its many characteristics, such as a primitive memory system, multiple advanced subprocesses, move semantics, object-oriented among others, such as function overloading. These capabilities enable Blockchain programmers to easily shape data with cryptographic chains. In fact, the first Blockchain application was originally written in C++.
  • Solidity. This is the fastest growing Blockchain programming language, since it was created with smart contracts in mind. The Solidity language is written statically with ECMAScript-like syntaxes. As Solidity was developed with Blockchain in mind, it is a programming language that is very suitable for solving many of the problems Blockchain programmers come across with blockchain code.
  • Vyper. This is a fairly new Blockchain programming language. The purpose of Vyper is to make writing smart contracts very simple. This removes a lot of the object-oriented functionalities that we come across in Solidity (such as recursive calling, infinite loops and modifiers) to avoid the security problems that can be caused by using it.  
  • Golang. Also known as Go, this is a Blockchain programming language for building fast and efficient systems. It’s considered the best language for developing a greater Hyperledger structure, in other words, the basis for creating Blockchain apps. Go is written statically and is a compiled language. It’s perfect for blockchain code. It also has characteristics that improve its output, such as classes, annotations, generics, among others.
  • C#. This Blockchain programming language enables open source developers to simply create a portable code using C#, which is used in all devices and operating systems such as Android, Linux, Mac, among others. What’s more, as C# is an OOP language, Blockchain programmers can achieve maximum performance when creating their next blockchain.
  • JavaScript. It’s possible that JavaScript is the most popular programming language, thanks to NodeJS, which is a cross-platform server environment. This is also heavily used by Blockchain developers. Creative and large-capacity Blockchain applications can be built with JavaScript, since it is installed in most systems. Because of this, Blockchain programmers don’t need to worry about integration if they use this language; meaning they can focus instead on application logic for blockchains. 
  • Simplicity. This is a high-level Blockchain programming language, which was developed for smart contracts. It is considered to be one of the best and most suitable programming languages for writing smart contracts, for both professional programmers and open source developers. Simplicity focuses on reducing Bitcoin’s complicated low-level readability. Therefore, it increases the capacity of Bitcoin developers, helping to create a quicker developing time.

Become the best programmer by studying at EPITECH

If you’re interested in the world of Blockchain and Big Data, at EPITECH we offer a course in programming at the leading school in programming and digital innovation, the Coding Academy.  The aim of this course is to teach students the necessary skills in coding and web development, which will open doors for them to jobs in programming and site development in the most exacting companies. Want to become a great programmer? Study at EPITECH!

Learn to programme at Epitech

HTML Basics: HTML line break

An line break in HTML is made by using the <br> or <br/>tag. This is used to introduce a html new line in the text, similar to using the “Enter” key on the keyboard. 

They are generally used within paragraphs and are very useful when writing addresses or any other texts where line separation is important. 

However, it’s not necessary to introduce line breaks in between paragraphs, since using the <p> tag does this. On the other hand, neither is it necessary to use them to increase the size of the line break in HTML. To do this, it’s better to change the CSS margin of the document. 

HTML line break features

  • A closing tag isn’t necessary. The only vital thing is adding the <br> tag at the end of the line where you want a break. In other words, it’s an empty element.
  • In XHTML it’s written as <br/>
  • Line break tags come under the “phrasing content” category, which in turn is a subset of the “flow content” category.
  • They enable any element that accepts “phrasing content” as a parent element.
  • The <br> tag includes global attributes. However, from HTML 4.01 onwards, the lang and dir attributes aren’t compatible with it. 

An example of how to make an HTML line break

Epitech Barcelona Campus<br>

Address: C/ Joan Miró, 21 Barcelona (08005)<br>

Tel: + (34) 93 797 88 14<br>


[email protected]

As you can see, line space tags in HTML are very useful and easy to introduce. If you want to learn more, don’t hesitate to study at EPITECH. We offer a Bachelor + Master’s Degree in Computer Science where you’ll learn all about programming languages.

Databases: Uses, database applications and types of databases

When a business starts up, it’s normal for them to store their data in programme files in unformatted text, for example on Excel sheets, rather than using a database. As time goes by, they will generate a huge amount of different types of data, such as financial, inventory, or personal. In these cases, it is very likely that you will find redundant data, there will be not much security and, what’s more, finding/accessing concrete data might be difficult. This is why it’s recommended to keep data in databases. In these, data is kept in an ordered format and with different access levels for finding and checking things easily, and only for those people who are authorised. But what database applications are and what are they uses? Discover it with Epitech!

Database uses

In this section, you will discover the uses of databases, which bring benefits to the companies that use them:

Sharing data: A database belongs to a company and can be shared by all the authorised users, unlike file systems, which only belong to the people or departments that use them.

Controlling data redundancy: So as to avoid wasting storage space as file systems store several copies of the same data in different files. A redundancy can’t always be eliminated completely, since the same piece of data can be used to create connections between different data.

Data consistency: If you update a piece of data that is stored in only one place, it is updated and is immediately available to all users. If the data appears more than once, in other words, it is duplicated, but the system already recognises the redundancy, the system itself ensures that the copies of the data remain consistent.

Maintaining standards: A database is also used to maintain the standards established, on a company level as well as nationally and internationally.

Database applications

A database can be applied in many areas of a business. Below, we’ll tell you the main database applications:

To improve data integrity: Integrity is normally expressed through rules or restrictions that cannot be broken. These restrictions are applied to data and the connections they have between themselves. It is the database system that is responsible for making sure they comply.

To protect data: With a database, you avoid unauthorised users being able to access data.

To easily access data: A database usually provides query languages or report generators. When a user wants to look something up in the data, a programmer won’t need to develop an app to provide the information from the search.

So as not to lose information: In some file systems, when more than one user accesses them at the same time, sometimes the information or integrity can be lost. Applying a database in the system avoids these kinds of issues.

Types of databases

Below you can see the main examples of database software:

  • MySql: This type of database is notable for its speed, but it isn’t recommended for administering large amounts of data. It has a server-based GPL licence. 
  • PostgreSql and Oracle: Unlike the database mentioned above, these are normally used when working with large volumes of data such as in intranets.
  • Access: Microsoft has developed this database, which must be specially created with the “Access” programme. This programme creates a .mdb file with a structure that has already been given and explained.
  • Microsoft SQL Server: Also developed by Microsoft, this database is more powerful than Access, mentioned above. It’s used when a large number of data needs to be administered.


Knowing how databases work, as well as how to use them, is an extremely valuable and useful asset for many companies at the moment. Furthermore, sometimes it can be a challenge to find professionals for these tasks.

If you’d like to know more about databases at Epitech, you’ll find a computer science school where we train our students using the most innovative techniques so that they’re fully prepared for their future. 

What’s more, you’ll find a Computer Science Bachelor’s Degree with which you’ll gain an official title, recognised by the EU, and learn everything there is to know about computer software, technologies, etc.

If you have any questions or want to find out any more, don’t hesitate to get in contact with us. We will be delighted to help you, without any kind of commitment.


Communication skills and their importance at every educational level

What do you understand by communication skills?

To talk about the communication skills of a person means their ability to express their ideas clearly to others; their ability to make another person understand what they are saying. Effective communication skills are crucial for any situation we find ourselves in. It’s important to know how to speak to people respectfully, at the same time as being clear and concise. 

Even so, we should emphasise that a person’s communication skills depend largely on their areas of knowledge. An expert in politics will be able to communicate very skilfully on this topic, but they may have less to say on the subject of biology. That’s why, if you want to learn to communicate with in a professional way on a topic, the best thing you can do is learn as much as possible about it. 

Despite this, it’s also important to develop effective communication skills generally, to learn how to communicate anything clearly. There are several ways to improve your communication skills, which are worth working on. These include active listening, being clear, being empathetic, using non-verbal communication and being assertive. These are things that should be worked on at every educational level, especially those where communicational skills are still developing. 

At what educational level do communicational skills start to develop?

A person’s communication skills continue to develop throughout their life. There is no doubt that the early years are the most important and where there is the fastest progress, but it doesn’t mean this stage is more important than later ones. Still, we should point out that learning how to communicate well in the early years is vital. If this isn’t taught correctly, a child can experience difficulties at later stages. 

Despite this, they won’t totally develop their communicational skills until secondary school. It’s during this stage that young people start to develop the communication style that they will use as adults, which is why there should be more emphasis on this during these years. Not being taught communication skills properly at this stage can lead to poor ability to express themselves when they are adults. This education should come from two places: from home, through communication with their parents, and from their educational setting, through subjects and classes. 

On the other hand, schools should put an educational system in place that rewards students for participating. By doing this, students will interact with their teachers, which is a very effective way of strengthening, as well as assessing, their ability to communicate.

Communication skills in higher education

Although this isn’t the most vital stage to teach communication skills to young people, it’s the final stage of their development. This makes it the last educational stage which can have a bearing on students’ communicational skills. At this point, communication within the family tends to take a backseat, which is why it’s important for educational settings to look for any gaps in communication that their students might have. On the other hand, in contrast to secondary education, higher education students tend to take more interest in developing their communication skills. 

This is why the schools can put more theoretical methods in place to strengthen their students’ communication skills, such as the concepts of bias and fallacy, or working on the principles of non-verbal communication. Getting group dynamics going is also very useful. 

Working in a team is one of the most effective ways of naturally boosting someone’s communication skills. On the other hand, encouraging students to participate in class is also recommended. A very effective way is encouraging debate among students, getting them to take a concrete stance and countering it against that of another student. 


At Epitech we believe it is vital to keep a careful eye on this so our students develop acceptable communication skills. It is a skill that’s relevant for any situation in life. Especially in the work environment it is necessary to communicate in a professional manner. This is why, in our Computer Science Bachelor’s Degree, we have a system where group work is especially relevant and where a dialogue between pupil and teacher is encouraged. Furthermore, we also ensure that all our students undertake internships in businesses. In this way our students not only gain experience in the communication skills workplace before finishing their degree, but they also leave their comfort zone and get used to interacting with professionals in the industry, who represent the role they will have in the future. For more information on our ways of teaching, contact us!

9 characteristics of a good programmer

Want to devote yourself to the world of computer science? Do you want to be a programmer?  If you’re passionate about computer science and you want to know what makes a good computer programmer, in this article we’ll explain this to you. Carry on reading to find out what are the strengths and characteristics needed to make a good computer programmer.

Strengths of a computer programmer

You can work on and improve your strengths. With the combination of the practice and perseverance needed in any field, it’s possible to develop at the highest level. Nothing is impossible with a good attitude and appropriate training and advice.

List of characteristics of a good programmer

  1. Having sufficient knowledge

Good training is essential for any profession. And to be a computer programmer, it’s really important to have a well-crafted foundation. For this, you need to choose the right programming school to give you these basics, which will be of paramount importance.

Furthermore, once you’ve acquired the necessary knowledge through the training, it’s very likely that throughout the process you will acquire many more of the strengths that are listed here.

  1. Logic and knowing how to plan correctly

The work of a developer is based on projects, which are ordered and organised into small tasks. Having organisational and logical qualities is one of the most important characteristics of a good programmer.

It’s very important that, when you choose a school for programming, its methodology is project-orientated: if you learn to organise your work into small projects from the very beginning, you’re going to go far.

  1. Having patience and a sound mind

In programming it’s very important to be patient and have a clear mind, since unexpected events can arise, and you constantly have to resolve new conundrums that come about. The programmer who can solve them calmly and objectively is more efficient. If you have the patience in complicated or sensitive situations, you can carry out your tasks much more quickly and effectively.


developer strenghts

  1. Creativity and a bit of imagination 

When developing a project that requires programming, whether it’s an app, a programme, or a web page, you need to be creative. That is one the most important developer strengths. It’s essential to create and design surprising and useful things while maintaining a stylish look. In addition, it avoids possible blocks, which waste time, and hitting the brakes in moving in the right direction. At these times, it’s essential to be able to respond, either immediately or after some thought, so we can find the answer and see things from a different point of view.

  1. Being able to analyse

A good computer programmer should be able to analyse tasks or projects objectively, with a well-thought-out plan in mind. They need to have a good understanding of the issue that needs resolving, know which direction to take and what problems they may come across while carrying out the task. They should not only have a Plan A, but also a Plan B, and set out the next steps according to the results they got.

  1. Great adaptability and flexibility

The world of the developer and computer science is changing constantly. You may well carry out one task in a certain way, but by the end of the month, a different technology for carrying out the same task has appeared. Knowing how to adapt is fundamental, as is having solid tools for a world that is continuously changing.

  1. Knowing your limits

From the beginning, a computer programmer should know their own limits. To give a solution to a problem you need to be cautious, and not make suppositions based on your limits. It’s important to make sure you’re going in the right direction and leave aside the knowledge you have that’s unlikely to be the solution. As the programmer gains experience, they will learn where their limitations lie and how to find the resources to meet the project’s needs.

  1. Good communication skills

We’re in constant communication, but the language programmers use amongst themselves isn’t the same that you should use with a client or someone outside of programming.

To be able to communicate the problem that needs a process, in a way that’s clear and that another person who’s not in the same world can understand, may seem easy, but actually it’s not as easy as it looks.

Learn to express yourself correctly, know how to explain something with words that even an outsider can understand, whether they are your problems with the project, or how it’s going to be developed.

  1. Be passionate 

In programming, being passionate and having fun working with technology and computer science is very important. If you enjoy the different programming and design processes, you can challenge yourself while carrying out your tasks, which will ultimately gain you better results. Without a doubt, working in programming means you will end up with a very strong feeling of belonging to this world, and enjoying your work.

How can Epitech help you become a good computer programmer?

At Epitech we are a computer science school. With our courses and degrees, you will learn how to develop all the characteristics of a good software developer. From the most basic, to becoming an expert in computer science. In addition, doing any of our training courses will give you the skills you need to be the computer science programmer that companies look for.

Contact us for more information or if you want to do one of our training courses.

How difficult is computer science or computer engineering?

Are you wondering whether computer science or computer engineering is hard? In this article we’ll answer your questions, and also give views of former students so that you can make a well-informed choice.

Honestly, how difficult is computer science or computer engineering?

Studying computer science or computer engineering has a reputation for being expensive, but that’s not the case in reality. Anyone who has done a university degree knows that nothing comes for free. Any university degree requires effort and dedication on the part of the student, unless you are highly gifted.

There are degrees such as Business Administration or others in social sciences, which may seem easy, but statistics say otherwise. For example, each year the Faculty of Economics and Business at the University of Barcelona sees around 1,600 students starting the Degree in Business Administration, yet only around 1,000 finish it.

But how hard is a degree in computer science? A degree in computer science or computer engineering isn’t hard, it just requires hard work and perseverance. If a student goes to classes, pays attention, is willing to learn and also does the work required throughout the course, then yes, they will have to work hard but computer engineering won’t be difficult at all for them. Of course, it’s possible that one particular subject may be harder to absorb or understand than others, but that happens in all university degrees.

Views on computer engineering or computer science


Oriol V.: “My first year doing the computer engineering degree was quite hard. The change from doing the high school diploma to going to university was obvious and many subjects were basic concepts or rather, theoretical. Sometimes I felt unmotivated, having to study subjects that I couldn’t see were relevant to real life, and I felt as if I was just wasting time.

From the second year onwards, things started to change. I was doing some courses that focused on what I liked, and I could also see their relevance to real life. This was also when I saw the importance of learning the basics in the first year. In the last two years, I could choose subjects that focused even more on my interests and preferences, which really piqued my interest and motivation to learn. Sure, I had to work hard, but it wasn’t difficult for me at all.”

Anton R.: “Studying computer engineering wasn’t hard. It wasn’t easy either, but it was the best decision I’ve made and I’m proud of it. I’m pleased I didn’t listen to the people who told me: computer engineering is hard, you won’t get the degree, you’ll really suffer, etc. After four years of studying, I could apply for loads of jobs, and I could choose which one I wanted to start in. Lots of my friends, who have degrees in biology, business administration or subjects like that, have found that there are thousands of people with the same degree also looking for work. Lots of them have found jobs, but they’re either not very well paid or they’re not very happy in them. Others are doing further studies so they can differentiate themselves from all the others and aim for better jobs, or just find one, as a lot of them still haven’t been able to get a job.

What’s more, we hung out with fellow students at the weekends or on weeknights. We went out to eat, or to party, or we played videogames (ok, we were a bit geeky, but we had lots of fun). We also went go-karting sometimes. If you’re ever told that studying computer engineering is hard and you’ll have no social life for 4 years, don’t pay attention. Follow your instincts and if you’re passionate about the world of computer science, don’t hesitate to start the degree. Anyway, how many people who’ve said that computer engineering is hard, have actually studied it? You’ll realise that there are very few of them, if any.”

Thomas Solignac:

be too difficult or me and I wouldn’t be able to finish it. After 3 years in architecture, I realised that it wasn’t for me, and that I wasn’t interested in it. As you can imagine, all my family and friends suggested I finish architecture because I was nearly there. But I didn’t listen to them, unlike when they said that computer engineering was difficult, and I couldn’t do it. So, I moved to computer engineering, which was my passion. The result? I finished engineering in 4 years, with an average grade of higher than 7 and now I’ve found a job which is pretty well paid.”

Studying Computer Science or computer engineering at Epitech

After reading the previous paragraphs about whether computer science or computer engineering is hard, and the views of students who have finished their computer engineering degree, we can conclude that studying computer science or computer engineering isn’t hard, but you have to like it.

If you’re passionate about computer science, at Epitech you’ll find a computer science and information technology school where you can gain EU-recognised official qualifications.

At Epitech we offer a Bachelor degree in Computer Science, where you’ll learn everything about programming and information systems and become an expert in computers/programming. What’s more, we have other courses and programmes related to computer science. If you’re looking for information or you have any questions, at Epitech we will be more than happy to help you. Contact us, without any commitment!





Junior Developer Tasks. What exactly does a Junior Developer do?

These days, being a Junior Developer is synonymous with securing a job in a company. But do you know what a Junior Developer does exactly? In this article we explain to you what they do, their tasks and what companies look for in a profile such as a Junior Developer.

What does a Junior Developer do?

Here you will find the junior developer job description. A Junior Developer is a basic level software developer or programmer who works in a development team. They are in charge of helping the team with all the coding and software design tasks. To make it simple, we can say that a Junior Developer writes and maintains the code of computer applications.

The tasks of a Junior Developer mainly range from learning basic code, to writing or developing (basic) code and correcting the errors that can arise, to compiling user data. A Junior Developer also has to deal with requests from the Senior Developer, supporting all the software design and coding functions.

Likewise, a Junior Programmer provides important support to the design team while continuously improving their coding and design skills.

The main tasks of a Junior Developer

Below are some of the main tasks a Junior Developer has to carry out within a company:

  • Assist the Development Manager or the Senior Developer, as per the company’s organisational structure, with programming/coding and software design.
  • Attend the company’s development meetings and contribute with their programming knowledge. This is essential for the company, since the Junior Programmer is the one who can deem how feasible implementing certain changes or improvements is, in the areas of the company that require programming, for example
  • Continuously improve their programming skills.
  • Learn basic code.
  • Respond to requests from the development team.

junior software developer job description

The following are some of the tasks that the junior developer carries out:

  • Research: Reading and analysing research reports and user suggestions for applying improvements in projects.
  • Creating programmes and applications. Tasks involving code development and implementation in a web/app.
  • Design. Implementing designs and translating them into code.
  • Defining the necessary specifications for software (code).
  • Monitoring how different programmes and applications are working.
  • Resolving errors, implementing updates and applying improvements to programmes.

Now you know the junior developer job description, we are goint to explain you what companies look for in a Junior Developer.

What do companies look for in a Junior Developer?

Not all companies require the same skills in a Junior Developer. In any case, what a company usually expects from a Junior Developer is that they have a wide/general knowledge or, in other words, that they are a “general specialist”, with knowledge of and a certain amount of experience in using different programming languages and libraries.

It’s very important – we could even say essential – that a Junior Programmer has good practical knowledge of basic programming languages. Furthermore, it’s paramount that a Junior Developer also has the knowledge of, and capacity to understand and quickly know how to use new technologies. Another trait, or important skill, that a Junior Developer needs in order to carry out their work, is the ability to work in a team environment.


If you’re interested in the world of programming and you want to start training, at Epitech we offer the Coding Academy Programming Course which we think could be ideal for you.

Don’t hesitate to contact us! We’ll give you all the information you need to get to know the course well and see what we can offer you.

Information Technologies: What are they? We explain their meaning to you

The terms IT (Information Technology) and ICT (Information and Communications Technology) are used all the time as if they were the same thing, but actually they’re not exactly the same. Want to know the definition of information technologies? And what the differences are between IT and ICT? We’ll show you in our new article.

What is Information Technology? Definition of information technologies

Information Technology (IT) covers all the digital tools or IT programmes that enable data or information to be shared, transmitted, administrated, treated or compiled. It is often used by organisations and companies for their business.

Without a doubt, the obvious aim is to create information, to be analysed later by people, who will make certain decisions based on this data analysis. When we talk about IT, we’re referring to the whole, broad area of information. In fact, within IT we can find hardware, in software, networks or peripherals.

What impact do information technologies have on organisations?

As everyone knows, a company or organisation is clearly linked to performance, production, competition and productivity. In this context, implementing the various technological tools in companies is clearly needed to optimise processes, improve and evolve.

Companies must be able to get used to new technologies, to modify their business models and make changes in a proactive way. There are many benefits of this to business organisations, such as: optimising processes, increasing productivity, reducing costs, improving communication both inside and outside the company, improving competitiveness, and the possibility of making much clearer decisions.

Other terms:

  • ICT: ICT, or Information and Communications Technology, are still part of IT, but they involve the communications component – integrating telecommunications and computers.
  • NICT: New Information and Communications Technologies

Train to become an expert in new technologies or digital transformation

If you’re a young person who wants to get into a profession related to information technologies, at Epitech, we offer various programmes for this. 

Without a doubt, one of the most prestigious courses in our school is the Bachelor and Master’s degree in Computer Science, where you can obtain an official qualification recognised in the European Union, and which will enable you to become an expert in computing and new technologies.

Contact us for more information about our programmes and get into a profession that is vitally important for both the present and the future.


What does a computer engineer, or computer science graduate do?

Want to know what a computer engineer or computer science graduate does? If you’re passionate about computer science and you want to study something related to it, this post will be the most helpful in answering certain frequently-asked questions. Below, we dig deep into the role and salary of a computer engineer, and we’ll show you the possibilities of studying a degree in computer science. Carry on reading to find out more.

What does a computer engineer do?

One of the most frequently-asked questions by people who are interested in studying a degree in computer science is, what does a computer engineer do? Computer engineers carry out very different tasks, related to the world of computer science and related to IT projects: data analysis, project creation, administration, research into improving processes, using data in platforms, development of AI processes, and development of software and hardware, among many other things.

A professional with computer engineering training is qualified to be able to: develop, design and lead IT projects in any phase, of a high complexity, and in any organisation. In the midst of digital transformation and innovation, the skills which engineering or its training provide offer the possibility of working in the industry with the highest guarantee of employment, whether it is at home or abroad.

what is a computer engineer salary

What degree do you need to be a computer engineer? Computer engineering or Bachelor + Master’s degree in Computer Science

Specialisation in computer science is very important, since it is a very extensive field and hard to get to know all areas in depth. When you choose computer engineering at university, you have to specialise in one sector in particular. This applies whether it’s a degree in computer engineering, a Bachelor’s in telematic engineering or in information systems, a Bachelor’s in computer engineering or in software engineering, etc.

So, what does Epitech offer for all this? Epitech offers varied and technical content in its Bachelor’s degree in Computer Science plus Master’s, which gives students the chance to learn the programming languages and all that encompass new technologies. Once you’ve got your qualification, which is officially recognised by the EU, you’ll become an expert in computer science technologies. Without the slightest doubt, you’ll be equipped to carry out roles such as: developer, full-stack developer, computer engineer, computer consultant, project manager, technical director, network and systems administrator, or even CEO

What areas can a computer engineer work in?

As we have already mentioned in another of our articles, the career opportunities after a computer science degree are numerous in any sector. However, the most important thing when entering the workforce is the specialisation which you have done.

In this context, you can competitively perform scenarios related to information technology. For example, a computer engineer can be: a web programmer or developer, app developer, designer or developer of software architecture, technological consultant, IT project manager, manager of e-commerce platforms, IT systems analyst, or cybersecurity specialist, among many other specialisations.

On the other hand, and as we have also mentioned in another of our articles, these can be in the jobs of the future and those emerging in the technological field, whether they are in artificial intelligence, Big Data or Cloud Computing.

And finally, what is a computer engineer’s salary?

Without a doubt, being a computer engineer is a profession with a future (and with a present, of course). Furthermore, it’s one of the careers or degrees that can provide great opportunities of promotion in the long term. The demand for this type of work is soaring, and it doesn’t seem to have reached its highest point, not by a long stretch.

As we already know, technology is in continuous development. Young people or anyone interested in computer science – those who want to choose the best option for their future – ask what a computer engineer’s salary is:

How much a salaried computer engineer earns varies according to professional experience, as well as the area of computer science it’s in. Let’s have a look at the salary ranges of a computer engineer in more detail:

  • Junior: The salary of a computer engineer with the minimum experience ranges from €18,000 to €30,000.
  • Senior: A senior computer engineer, with experience in the relevant sector, receives a salary of between €30,000 and €48,000.
  • Project Leader: A project manager, in charge of supervising an IT project, receives a salary of around €48,000 to €70,000 or more, which makes it the best paid profile in Spain.

What is PHP and what is this open source language used for?

In a couple of our articles, such as how to learn self-taught programming or how many languages exist, we’ve mentioned the PHP programming language  However, we don’t think we went into enough detail, since it’s one of the most important programming languages to date. Find out below what is PHP, what is PHP used for and what the main advantages of an open source language are.

What is PHP?

First of all, the PHP meaning is “Hypertext Preprocessor“, which the PHP FAQ describes as a “recursive acronym. PHP is a programming language that enables web development or dynamic web applications, suitable for embedding HTML, always following established rules.

In addition, PHP boosts the connection between the server and the user’s interface.

What is PHP used for?

Without a doubt, PHP can be used in a large number of applications, given that it’s an open source programming language. What does being an open source language mean? In this context, an open source language enables developers to edit their structure and consequently apply them in any project.

As we’ve previously mentioned, the PHP programming language is language that’s embedded in HTML and because of this, it’s not necessary to use many commands to show HTML.

Below, we’ve compiled a list of everything you can do with PHP, together with its advantages and disadvantages.

Advantages of PHP

  • A free language, which can easily be edited by any developer or programmer.
  • It has a very simple syntax, meaning that the learning curve isn’t as steep as it is with other programming languages.
  • It enables work environments to be easily created.
  • It has a very smooth installation process.
  • It integrates very easily into the database.
  • There is a very large and active community which means it can constantly evolve and adapt to change.
  • It’s the most commonly used programming language in the world.
  • PHP is a cross-platform language, so it can be used in different applications and professional environments.
  • The code is executed on the server, and HTML is executed on the browser.
  • Currently, it can be used in a large number of databases such as: Oracle, MySQL, Interbase, SQLite, Sybase, PostgreSQL and SQL Server, among others.
  • It offers security against cyber attacks by hackers.
  • It has numerous extensions, which is why it’s one of the languages used in complex projects.
  • It supports large amounts of data.


  • You need in-depth knowledge to configure security breaches that can take place in the server.
  • The source code can’t be hidden easily.
  • To execute it, you need a

As you’ve seen, PHP is a very powerful and versatile language and, as a result, it continues to grow. It’s a programming language on the server, and this enables you to carry out unlimited projects. What’s more, it has a very gentle learning curve, which makes it ideal for those who are new to the programming world.

Want to train as a programmer? At Epitech, we have a Programming bootcamp, which will train you as a web developer or programmer, giving you the chance to be fast-tracked into the labour market as a qualified developer.

Contact us!

Digital Revolution: What is it and what are its pillars?

If you want to know what the digital revolution is and what this technological change for the digital sector is based on, we’ll delve deeper in this article. Carry on reading to find out more.

What is the digital revolution? Definition

If you want us to define the digital revolution, we can is considered to be the third industrial revolution. In other words, a scientific and technological revolution. But the technical answer for what is the digital revolution is that is a process of change which our society has experienced and continues to experience every day. The arrival of technologies such as analogue, then mechanical and electronic, and finally digital technology, has caused a disruptive change in both society and the economy. As you can see, to define the digital revolution, we must take into account the evolution of society.

What impact has the digital revolution had?

As with any revolution, it’s caused a paradigm change, leaving behind out-of-date, obsolete processes. This came about with the arrival of modern technology, which started to be used in industrial processes, and fast became part of society and the global economy.

Another big change has been the arrival of devices such as PCs and smartphones, which have changed consumer methods, and even our way of socialising. All this has provided the perfect ecosystem to get itself started in the information era.

The era of digital information, or computer science, was when information started to travel quicker than physical movement. All of this was thanks to the creation of digital information and communications technology (ICT).

The world we know is digital and interconnected by devices and digital systems.  What’s more, the way of accessing information changed radically, since digital media bring information directly to the user.

On the other hand, there are fewer personal interactions, productivity has increased because of more efficient technology, and workers are fully connected all the time, no matter where they are.

Digital transformation, the key to everything

The processes of changing and adapting to new technologies aren’t just for big companies. In Spain, the whole business fabric, or the way companies are distributed according to their sector, is made up of small and medium enterprises. Because of this, the Spanish business community needs to be prepared and provided with new technologies.

How is Epitech involved in this process? We are a technology and computer science school, offering a master’s degree in computer science. Thanks to this master’s degree, students can learn the skills needed to establish the perfect digital transformation strategy in any business. Because we know it’s a number one priority for businesses.

Customers and users are proactively demanding more and more in a digital environment, which is why they want to have personalised processes, virtual reality (Hyperlink), chatbots, etc. There’s no denying that digital skills are fundamental in any business today and professionals who are computer science experts are increasingly sought-after to bring this revolution to businesses.

Low-level language: What it is, types, features and much more

Do you know what low-level or first generation language is? Would you like to learn low-level language? In this article we’re going to explain to you what low-level programming language is, the types that currently exist, and their features and functions.

What is low-level language?

In the first place, you should know that a low-level language is a programming language. A low-level programming language is one where its instructions have direct control over the hardware and therefore their function depends on the physical structure of the computers that support them.

The use of the term low doesn’t mean that this language is less important than a high-level one; it simply means that there is less abstraction between the language and the hardware.

To help you understand better, here’s a general example: low-level languages are used to programme tasks or transcendental functions of operating systems, device drivers or real-time applications.

Low-level programming languages: examples

The term ‘low-level language’ doesn’t refer to a particular language, instead it encompasses several types of languages. There are three different types. We’ll explain this below, in order from lower to higher complexity, together with some low-level programming languages examples so it’s clear to you.

  1. The first one is the well-known Binary Code, which is the most basic and forms part of all information systems. It’s very popular, since it’s very easy to use. You’re sure to have come across it on more than one occasion. It only uses the numbers 0 and 1 to form the code. The 1 represents “everything” while the 0 represents “nothing”.
  2. The second low-level programming language is machine language: It’s also formed using ones (1) and zeros (0) and, as its name suggests, it’s the code that directly communicates instructions to the computer (CPU). Using this language is essential since it’s the one used to literally send all the tasks it has to do.
  3. In third place we have assembly languages, also known as mnemonics. These are the first level of abstraction. These codes need a tool such as an assembler to translate them into machine language so that the CPU can run them. Also, these aren’t programmes that are directly executable by the computer.

Low-level language instructions in general are an abbreviation of the instruction that they symbolise and correspond directly (one-to-one) to the same instructions that they represent. The code that comes out of an assembly language compilation generates an executable binary machine code.

Now you know all the types of low-level languages there are. Any other language won’t be low-level.

Below, we briefly explain what middle-level languages are.

Middle-level languages:

Middle-level languages bind the gap between low and high-level languages. They have the advantages of both and eliminate or reduce the issues that each one can have separately. These languages are used to develop different applications or functionalities such as, for example, spreadsheets, operating systems, database managers, etc.

Examples of middle-level languages: C, Basic. The following are also considered middle-level languages despite being higher level than the two previously mentioned: C++, Fortran, Cobol, PHP, Lisp.

Low-level language features

Low-level language has many advantages. It’s a simple and very adaptable code, with direct instructions that are easy to convert and, as if that weren’t enough, it runs at high speed.

On the other hand, low-level language also has some disadvantages. For example, this language is too close to the hardware, which makes it harder to structure some programmes. You need to be very careful when using it to avoid making mistakes that could significantly increase the work and revision of the code.


Want to learn different programming languages? At Epitech you’ll find a computer science school where we train our students using the most innovative techniques so that they’re fully prepared for their future.  You’ll find the Bachelor degree in Computer Science, or our programming bootcamp in Barcelona, where we teach you to use different programming languages so you can become a successful professional in the world of computer science.


How many programming languages are there?

To date, there are many programming languages available. The full list is practically endless, and the fact is that only a few languages currently predominate on a global level. How many programming languages are there? As we’ve said, there are hundreds, but only a few are worth getting to know and learning more about.

In this article, we’ll explain a bit more about the types of language, what you need to know and  how many coding languages are there.

Programming language categories:

These are used to run websites, apps, software and all kinds of devices that require computer programming and coding knowledge.

Depending on their purpose, programming languages fall into the following categories:

  • Machine language.
  • Low-level programming languages.
  • High-level programming languages.

In broad terms, machine language is used by any computer and is based on a binary code. Low-level languages can vary according to the computer or machine being used, whereas high-level language uses commands and words (normally in English), which are easy for programmers to understand.

Regarding the last category, high-level programming languages are used for web and app programming. These are created to allow the user or professional to be able to solve complex data processes in a very simple way. This means increased flexibility in being able to use a type of language that’s suitable for humans and not just aimed at being understood by the machine or programmed device itself.

Programming languages that exist (and are used) at the moment

As we’ve already pointed out, there are hundreds of them. These days they’re used by Front End and Back End programmers to programme both the visible part and the code that makes everything work behind a website, app or software. You’re probably familiar with the main ones (C, Python, PHP, JavaScript and Ruby) but there are many more.

Here are some of the different programming languages that exists:

  • C, C++ and C#
  • Java
  • Python
  • PHP
  • SQL
  • Ruby
  • Visual Basic. NET
  • Programming language R
  • TypeScript
  • Swift
  • Rust
  • Go
  • Kotlin
  • Postscript
  • Scheme
  • Erlang
  • Elixir
  • Pascal
  • Scala
  • Objective-C

As you can see, these are only the main ones, and the list is already very long.

Below, you can see how the level of demand and use of some of these languages has evolved ( Source: TalentUp.io)

Global trends

Programming languages

So, how many programming languages are there? The number of programming languahes is more than 675. However, bear in mind that many of these are obsolete or are only used for very specific types of programming. You can see all of them in this complete list.


If you want to know more about the types of language and are interested in taking a programming course, visit our Coding Academy web page. On our programming course we offer training that’s recognised by major businesses and institutions, where our students learn SQL, PHP, Python, JavaScript, Native, Electron, MongoDB, Express, REACT, NodeJs and everything needed to be future Full Stack web programmers.

Digital Communication: what is it? Concept and features

Accessing and using digital information has become part of our daily lives. Around 4 billion people globally have Internet access and use it regularly. As a result, digital communication is incredibly important. In this new article, we’ll answer to the question “what is digital communication” and we talk about its main features.

What is digital communication?

Digital communication definition: This concept, also known as data communication or data transmission, is the transfer of data or information using digital signals over a point-to-point (P2P) channel. A P2P connection is a mode of communication between two communication endpoints.

Communicating digitally is a communication technique in which thoughts, data or information are digitally encoded as discreet signals. These signals are electronically transferred to the recipients.

This means transferring data, either by digitised analogue signal or digital bitstream, over point-to-point or point-to-multipoint communication channels. These channels can be made up of many types. For example, there are storage channels, fibre optics, computer buses, wireless communication channels, etc.

Information or data is represented as an electromagnetic signal, such as microwaves, electrical voltage, infrared and airwaves.

Everyone, and all modern businesses, institutions and organisations depend on this system to communicate between themselves. In this case, the source of information tends to come from a computer keyboard or mobile device and flows or is transferred digitally.

Only one person is needed to operate this system. Therefore, this mode of communication reduces manpower and is the cheapest way of communicating to date.

Features of digital communication

These are some of the freatures of digital communication:

  • The main feature of digital communication is that you can choose when and with whom you want to communicate, including someone who’s in another part of the world. What’s more, wherever the other person is, the message is transmitted instantly. This speed is good but can also be bad at the same time. Messages travel quickly, but sometimes you write things that you later might regret.
  • Another feature is that with digital communication, verbal communication takes precedence over non-verbal. Likewise, contact is often brief, replacing the longer, more meaningful contact that being face-to-face brings. Communication through a digital device is often limited to a screen and a speakerphone. As a result, limited information is transmitted, which can sometimes be misinterpreted. You often have to encode and decode text, abbreviations and emojis.
  • Only video chats and teleconferences allow gestures, body language and tone of voice to be interpreted, as if they were face-to-face conversations. But there are still limitations, as this is very far removed from real human contact.

More features of digital communication

  • Digital data can be copied, modified or even reissued. Every message you write, every friend you add, every comment or photo you share is encoded in digital data and stored on the server of the service you use, such as Facebook or LINE. This is a big challenge for everyone who communicates digitally.
  • With digital communication, you can be in contact with people who have similar interests, whom otherwise you would never get to know. It’s a way of socialising and discovering new ideas at the same time. For example, you can join a social media group where people share your passion and, by commenting on posts and photos, by sending messages etc, you can get to know new people.
  • Another feature of digital communication is that it doesn’t cost very much. Social media and calling via the Internet are free. The fact that messages don’t need printing on paper because they can be stored on an electronic device for a long time means you can even save money. Books can also be electronically downloaded, so you don’t need a printed copy. Consequently, on a global level this contributes to cutting down fewer trees to make paper.
  • The final feature is that most of your personal ID and information can be stored on your own device. This has both positive and negative implications. You need to be much more careful not to lose your mobile or have it stolen. But at the same time, it’s very convenient. For example, you can pay for things with your mobile, and keep passwords or access verification linked to the device, etc.

Examples of digital communication

These are some exambles of digital communocation:

  • Email.
  • Websites.
  • Blogs.
  • Social media.
  • Live chat.
  • Chatbots.
  • Video chat.
  • Web calling.

Epitech and digital communication:

Now you know what digital communication is and what its main features are. As you’ve seen, digital communication is incredibly important nowadays; it’s used all the time and as pervasive as it is, it can open lots of doors to you professionally.

At Epitech we have several courses and programmes related to digital communication and computer science. In particular, we offer a Master’s in Digital Management which teaches the various concepts, techniques, tools, etc of digital communication.

For example, you learn about strategy, where we help you to develop a systemic and long-term vision, as well as critical thinking. You’ll also learn about future technological and digital trends, which will help you know how to manage international projects and teams. On finishing the course, you will have a qualification that’s officially recognised by the EU, which will make you an expert in information technology management.

If you have any questions, want more information or need to talk to us about anything, don’t hesitate to get in touchwith us. We’ll be delighted to help!

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Le informamos que los datos anteriores se tratarán para las finalidades indicadas en el formulario y se incorporarán a un fichero personal propiedad de Epitech Barcelona. El visitante tiene reconocidos los derechos de acceso, rectificación, cancelación u oposición, tal y como indica la Ley Orgánica 15/1999 de 13 de Diciembre de LOPD y en su Real Decreto 1720 de 21/12/2007, así como en la LSSI.CE y podrá ejercitarlos a través del mail: [email protected], o en la dirección de Campus Epitech Barcelona, Calle Joan Miró, 21 Barcelona (08005).